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A music genre is a category (or genre) of pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language". Music can also be categorised by non-musical criteria such as geographical origin.

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Blues - The Blues is a vocal and instrumental music form which emerged in the African-American community of the United States. Blues evolved from West African spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants and has its earliest stylistic roots in West Africa. This musical form has been a major influence on later American and Western popular music, finding expression in ragtime, jazz, big bands, rhythm and blues, rock and roll and country music, as well as conventional pop songs and even modern classical music. Due to its powerful influence that spawned other major musical genres originating from America, blues can be regarded as the root of pop as well as American music.
Monday, February 18, 2008
Kosova Flag Flamuri I Ri i Kosoves
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The flag of Kosovo was officially adopted following the unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. The flag is partly the result of an international design competition, organized by the United Nations-backed provisional government, which attracted almost a thousand entries. The competition rules insisted that the final design must not use ethnic or national symbols or colour schemes in order to ensure that it represented all citizens. The now-used design is a variant of one proposal. It shows six white stars in an arc above a golden map of Kosovo on a blue field.[2] [3] They are meant to symbolize Kosovo's six ethnic groups: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks.

The Flag of Kosovo resembles the Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina in terms of colours and shapes used (white stars and yellow shape of the country on a blue field). It also resembles the flag of Democratic Republic of Congo used between 1997 and 2006, which was deep blue with six yellow stars down the hoist and a larger yellow star in the centre.


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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 4:10 PM   13 comments
    Friday, May 11, 2007
    Movie Trailer - THE AGE OF SCANDERBEG
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    Gjergj Kastrioti (1405–January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg, was an Albanian prince who united the Albanian tribes of Epirus , Albania and a Slavic tribe from Montenegro in resisting the expanding Ottoman Empire for 25 years. Today he's considered a national hero of Albania.

    Obliged by the Ottomans to pay tribute to the Empire, and to ensure the fidelity of local rulers, Gjon Kastrioti's sons were taken by the Sultan to his court as hostages. In 1423, Gjergj Kastrioti and his three brothers were taken by the Turks. He attended military school and led many battles for the Ottoman Empire. He was awarded for his military victories with the title Iskander Bey (Albanian transliteration: Skënderbeu, English transliteration: Skanderbeg, In Turkish this title means Lord or Prince Alexander, in honor of Alexander the Great). Skanderbeg soon switched sides and came back to his native land to successfully defend Albania against the Ottoman Empire until the time of his death.

    Success in the Ottoman army

    He earned distinction as an officer in several Ottoman campaigns both in Asia Minor and in Europe, and the Sultan appointed him to the rank of General. He fought against Greeks, Serbs and Hungarians, and some sources claim that he maintained secret links with Ragusa, Venice, Ladislaus V of Hungary, and Alfonso I of Naples. Sultan Murad II gave him the title Vali, making him Governor of some provinces in central Albania. He was respected abroad, but he missed his country. After the death of hirisoner exchange, failed.

    In 1466, Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army into Albania and laid siege to Kruje as his father had also attempted sixteen years earlier. Kruje was defended by a garrison of 4,400 men, led by Prince Tanush Thopia. After several months, Mehmed, like Murad II, saw that seizing Kruja by force of arms would not be easily accomplished, and left the siege to return to Istanbul. However, he left a force of forty thousand men under Ballaban Pasha to maintain the seige, even building a castle in central Albania, which he named El-basan (eventually becoming the modern Elbasan), to support the siege. This second siege was no more successful than the first was eventually broken by Skanderberg, resulting in the death of Ballaban Pasha, who fell victim to the use of firearms.

    A few months later, in 1467, Mehmed, frustrated by his inability to subdue Albania, again led an army into Albania, this one the largest of its time. Kruje was besieged for a third time, but on a much grander scale. While a contingent kept the city and its forces pinned down, Ottoman armies came pouring in from Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, and Greece with the aim of keeping the whole country surrounded, thereby strangling Skanderbeg’s supply routes and limiting his mobility. During this conflict, Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria in the Venetian controlled city of Lezhe, and died on January 17, 1468, just as the army under the leadership of Leke Dukagjini defeated the Ottoman force in Shkodra.

    The Albanian resistance went on after the death of Skanderbeg for an additional ten years under the new leadership of Leke Dukagjini. In 1478, the fourth siege of Kruje finally proved successful for the Ottomans; demoralized and severely weakened by hunger and lack of supplies from the year-long siege, the defenders surrendered to Mehmed, who had promised them to leave unharmed in exchange. As the Albanians were walking away with their families, however,the Ottomans reneged on this promise, killing the men and enslaving the women and children. A year later, the Ottoman forces captured Shkodra, the last free Albanian castle (although it was under Venetian control at the time), but the Albanian resistance continued sporadically until around 1500.

    Papal Relations

    Skanderbeg's military successes evoked a good deal of interest and admiration from the Papal States, Venice, and Naples, themselves threatened by the growing Ottoman power across the Adriatic Sea. Skanderbeg managed to arrange for support in the form of money, supplies, and occasionally troops from all three states through his diplomatic skill. One of his most powerful and consistent supporters was Alfonso the Magnanimous, the king of Aragon and Naples, who decided to take Skanderbeg under his protection as a vassal in 1451, shortly after the latter had scored his second victory against Murad II. In addition to financial assistance, the King of Naples supplied the Albanian leader with troops, military equipment, and sanctuary for himself and his family if such a need should arise. As an active defender of the Christian cause in the Balkans, Skanderbeg was also closely involved with the politics of four Popes, one of them being Pope Pius II, the Renaissance humanist, writer, and diplomat.

    Profoundly shaken by the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Pius II tried to organize a new crusade against the Turks, and to that end he did his best to come to Skanderbeg's aid, as his predecessors Pope Nicholas V and Pope Calixtus III had done before him. This policy was continued by his successor, Pope Paul II. They gave him the title Athleta Christi, or Champion of Christ.

    Skanderberg's 25-year resistance against the Ottoman Empire succeeded in helping protect the Italian peninsula from invasion by the Turks.

    Gjergj Kastriot's Legacy

    After his death from natural causes in 1468 in Lezhë, his soldiers resisted the Turks for the next 12 years. In 1480 Albania was finally conquered by the Ottoman Empire. When the Turks found the grave of Skanderbeg in Saint Nicholas church of Lezhe, they opened it and held his bones like talismans for luck. The same year, they invaded Italy and conquered the city of Otranto.

    Skanderbeg's posthumous fame was not confined to his own country. Voltaire thought the Byzantine Empire would have survived had it possessed a leader of his quality. A number of poets and composers have also drawn inspiration from his military career. The French sixteenth-century poet Ronsard wrote a poem about him, as did the nineteenth-century American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Antonio Vivaldi composed an opera entitled Scanderbeg.

    Skanderbeg today is the National Hero of Albania. Many museums and monuments are raised in his honor around Albania, among them the Skanderbeg Museum next to the castle in Krujë.

    Skanderbeg is founder of Castriota Scanderbeg family which is today part of Italian nobility.


    Sincerely,

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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 5:51 PM   0 comments
    BRAND NEW SKENDERBEU SCANDERBEG DOCUMENTARY - PREVIEW
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 5:48 PM   0 comments
    Best Fighting Scene EVER Of Skender Beu
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    Tags: Skënderbeu Skenderbeu Skanderbeg Skenderbeg Albania Kosova Albanian Hero Fight Fighting Old Movie Gjergj Kastrioti

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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 5:44 PM   2 comments
    Skanderbeg Warrior King of Albania
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 5:43 PM   0 comments
    Wednesday, April 18, 2007
    Evidences about Serbian Crimes in Kosova
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    A unique archive of destroyed of Albanian Villages by Serbian special police. Serbian Criminal Police have fired on Albanian Civilians fleeing their homes in the western region, including those attempting to cross the border into Albania. Helicopters marked with the red cross have shot at refugees near the Albanian border.
    Attacks on civilians and the systematic destruction of villages have effectively cleansed Kosova's western region of ethnic Albanians.

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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 3:26 PM   0 comments
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    The last Serbian war, started in january 1998 until june 1999, was destroying for Kosova and his people. This war leaded by serbs and their government caused over 12000 killed and massacred Kosova-Albanians. Many houses were burned down and the Serbs intended to clean Kosova from Albanians, who was always the majority population in this region. Only with the NATO intervention, this Serbian plans could be stopped.

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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 3:04 PM   0 comments
    Serbian Stateterror in Kosova
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    The fight of the Kosova-Albanians for liberty, freedom and democracy in their country begins with a tragedy. The Serbian Government in Belgrade revoked the autonomous status of Kosova and made this country to the larges prison in Europe. This film shows the events in the end of the 80s till the beginning of the 90s which leads to the Kosova war 1998-1999.

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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 3:03 PM   0 comments
    EVIDENCE - The War in Kosova
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    In the last war in Kosova, the Serbian Criminal State killed around 14,000 Albanian people. Near 90% of them were unarmed civilians. The defenseless. Mainly children, women and old-aged men. Around 3.000 people were kidnapped and are still missing. The overwhelming number of them are in Serbia. Near to 20,000 women were raped. 740,000 people were violently expelled. 120,000 houses were destroyed or damaged by the Serbian Criminal Army.

    The distinctive aspect of the war was the destruction of Kosova's economy. The extreme exploitation and robbery of the 1990s culminated with purposeful destruction during the war.

    Conclusion:

    There is no alternatives to Kosova Independence, never again Kosova under Terrorist State of Serbia

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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 3:01 PM   0 comments
    Monday, October 16, 2006
    Kosov History
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    This brief history, based on authoritative published sources, is intended to provide readers with an objective and reasonably concise history of the hundreds of years of struggle between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo. Interested readers are strongly encouraged to consult the sources cited for a much fuller treatment of the subject. At the end of the historical summary an analysis of the NATO military intervention of 1999 is provided. This represents the author's opinion of the intervention only,and is not intended to be part of the short history of Kosovo that is provided in this document. The postscript brings us up-to-date on the essentials of the continuing controversies as of November15, 2002.

    History Prior to 19th Century

    The earliest known inhabitants of Kosovo were called Illyrians by both Greeks and Romans. Albanians today claim to be direct descendants of the Illyrians. Serbian scholars claim that Albanians appeared on the scene in the early Middle Ages as a result of intermarriage between nomadic shepherds and unromanized remnants of Illyrians and Dardanians from Thrace. Tracing such descents is difficult but the people living in the region before the arrival of the Serbs from the North are likely to have some genetic relationships to Albanians, but DNA data would be needed to definitively settle the claim, which in any case is hardly germane to the current conflict. The region was conquered by Alexander the Great 300 years before Christ and became part of the Roman province of Dardania in the 4th century A. D.

    Slavs crossed the Danube and moved into the Balkans by the 6th century. These migrations weakened the Byzantium Empire sufficiently that Illyrian speaking people, known to their neighbors as Albanians moved eastward from the Adriatic into the Kosovo region of the Balkans. Their language became known as Albanian and their culture became allied with Byzantium after the breakup of the Catholic Church into Eastern and western branches in 1054. Slavs migrating into the Balkans divided into three groups; Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, as is still true today. By the 12th century almost all arable land in the region now known as Northern Albania and Kosovo was in Slavic hands.

    By 1190 Kosovo had become the administrative and cultural center of the medieval Serbian state ruled by the powerful Nemanjic dynasty. This dynasty lasted 200 years and still today Kosovo is known by Serbians as "Old Serbia". However in 1389, in the famous Battle of Kosovo Polje, the Serbs and their allies were defeated by the Ottoman Turks and shortly Kosovo became part of the Ottoman Empire. Albanians started to move back into Kosovo in considerable numbers in the 15th century and the Ottomans took sovereignty over the region in 1489. During this time the great majority of Albanians were still Christians, and Serbs and Albanians lived together in reasonable harmony. Gradually Albanians and to a lesser extent Serbs became converted to Islam. Serb resistance to conversion was strengthened by activities of the Orthodox Church since Kosovo contained many seminaries and was the home of the Serbian Orthodox Church. In the late 17th century Serbs left Kosovo in large numbers as a result of military victories of the Ottoman Turks. This caused the Serbian "center of gravity" to move northward to the region of Belgrade where it has remained ever since. This displacement of the Serb population is known in history as "the great migration". As a result, the region of Kosovo became underpopulated and, attracted by available fertile land, was resettled by Albanians moving eastward from the hills of Albania. At this time these Albanians were both Christian and Muslim.

    The Islamic Conquest and Islamization

    Serbia including Kosovo was conquered by the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1459, Bosnia and Herzegovina fell in 1465 and 1483 repectively. During this time Serbian Christians and Jews, as "people of the book", became dhimmis subject to the dhimma or protection offered to Christian and Jews in newly Islamized lands in exchange for their lives. Dhimmi status goes back to the 7th century when the Jews at the oasis of Khaybar in Arabia accepted the treaty offered to them by Muhammed. In exchange for their lives the Jews forfeited ownership of their lands were forced to defer to Muslims on the street, in business dealings and under the Shari'a law, and were forced to by heavy taxes to their Muslim conquerers. This treaty of Khaybar became the model by which all Christian and Jews in newly conquered lands became subject to a condition referred to by the scholar Bat Ye'or as dhimmitude, a contraction of the two word dhimmitude and servitude. Christians and Jews in lands under Islamic rule remained in the status of dhimmitude until the emancipation ordered by the Ottoman Sultan in the middle of the 19th century.under pressure from the European powers. In reality the oppression of the Christians and the Jews in the Balkans moderated in 1912 after the first Balkan war.

    Late 19th and Early 20th Century


    The opening of a Serbian seminary in Prizren in 1871 started a pronounced strengthening of the Serb presence in Kosovo culminating in Serbian reoccupation and control of Kosovo by 1912. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Turks in the Russo-Ottoman War in 1878 the terms of the "Peace Accord" extended Bulgaria westward and gave the Serbs control of Mitrovica and Pristina in Kosovo, while the remainder remained in Ottoman hands. In response to this peace settlement Albanian nationalists called a meeting in Prizren which was attended by over 300 delegates from Kosovo and western Macedonia. This meeting founded what became known as "The Prizren League". The delegates were primarily conservative Muslim landowners whose main interest was to maintain strong Ottoman control of Kosovo to protect them from marauding Balkan neighbors. The League also included Albanian intellectuals inspired by ideas of the European Renaissance who were interested in unification of Albanian people under the umbrella of Ottoman rule. The Ottoman Sultan supported the League because he wanted to instill pan-Islamic ideology as a counterbalance to Christian and Slavic influences. However, as the Ottoman Empire weakened the League moved toward autonomy within the Empire. In this movement the League increasingly became anti-Christian as well, causing considerable anxiety among Christian Albanians and especially among the Serbs. At this time the Muslim leadership encouraged what today would be termed "ethnic cleansing" and as a result more and more Serbs left Kosovo and moved north in Serbia. The Treaty of San Stefano in 1898 granted independence to Serbia.Also in 1898 Western powers, reacting to what they perceived as undue Russian interests in the Balkans, compelled Russia to submit to a new peace settlement, this time at the Congress of Berlin presided over by the "Iron Chancellor" Bismarck. This settlement greatly reduced the size of Bulgaria and returned all Albanian inhabited land to the Ottomans. Many Serbs were expelled from Kosovo at this time and Serbian troops also were forced to withdraw..


    In the early 20th century the "Young Turk Movement", as a liberal movement in opposition to the Sultan, became an important factor within the Ottoman Empire. A constitution was established and electoral laws promulgated. Unfortunately for the hopeful Albanians in Kosovo the electoral law of 1908 stipulated that voters must have a knowledge of the Turkish language in order to vote leaving the great majority of Kosovars, whether Albanian or Serbian, disenfranchised. The Young Turks were strongly opposed to nationalist tendencies within the Empire and worked toward centralization of power and authority and Turkification of all subjects in the Ottoman domain. As is the case in present day Serbia, the Ottomans strongly opposed the autonomy desired by Kosovars in general and Albanians in particular. This was one of many Albanian Kosovar disappointments though the years.

    In the first Balkan War of 1912 Albania was attacked by Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece. The Albanians were allied with the Ottomans. Serbs joined the army in large numbers to avenge the Serbian defeat by the Turks at the Battle of Kosovo Polje. At this time Kosovo was mostly Albanian. Serbs entered Pristina as Albanians retreated to the mountains. The Serbian army destroyed Turkish and Albanian houses and there was much plundering and killing. Serb peasants followed the army into Kosovo re-occupying the land. The Albanians fought fiercely but lost the war and Kosovo came under Serbian authority. At the Conference of Ambassadors in London in 1912 presided over by Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary, Serbia was given sovereignty over Kosovo which it has retained to the present day. Albania, for the first time was internationally recognized and by the Treaty of London in1913 became a fully independent and sovereign state. Within Kosovo not surprisingly there was much anti-Serbian sentiment since the population was still mostly Albanian. In 1913, in the second Balkan War, Bulgaria attacked the Serbian and Greek armies in Macedonia. They miscalculated and were quickly and decisively defeated. Among the outcomes Serbia nearly doubled in size obtaining most of Slavic Macedonia.
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 9:13 PM   4 comments
    History of Albania in Ottoman Times
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    Officially Republic of Albania, Albanian Shqipëria, or Republika e Shqipërisë, country located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. It encompasses an area of 11,100 square miles (28,748 square kilometres), with a maximum length from north to south of about 210 miles (340 kilometres) and a maximum width of about 95 miles. It is bounded to the northwest by Montenegro, to the northeast by the Kosovo region of Serbia, to the east by Macedonia, and to the southeast and south by Greece. To the west and southwest, Albania is bordered by the Adriatic and Ionian seas. Albania's immediate western neighbour, Italy, lies some 50 miles across the Adriatic. The capital city is Tiranë.

    Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë, meaning "sons of eagles," and to their country as Shqipëria in Albanian History. Descended from the ancient Illyrians, they have lived in relative isolation and obscurity through most of their difficult history, in part because of the rugged terrain of their mountainous land but also because of a complex of historical, cultural, and social factors. Owing to its location on the Adriatic Sea, Albania has long served as a bridgehead for various nations and empires seeking conquest abroad in Albanian History. In the 2nd century BC the Illyrians were conquered by the Romans, and from the end of the 4th century AD they were ruled by the Byzantine Empire. After suffering centuries of invasion by Visigoths, Huns, Bulgars, and Slavs, the Albanians were finally conquered by the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century in Albanian History. Turkish rule cut off Albania from Western civilization for more than four centuries, but in the late 19th century the country began to remove itself from Ottoman Orientalism and to rediscover old affinities and common interests with the West in Albanian History. Albania was declared independent in 1912, but the following year the demarcation of the boundaries of the new country by the Great Powers of Europe assigned about half its territory and people to neighbouring states in Albania History. Ruled as a monarchy between the world wars, Albania emerged from the violence of World War II as a communist state that fiercely protected its sovereignty and in which almost all aspects of life were controlled by the ruling party in Albanian History. But with the collapse of other communist regimes beginning in 1989, new social forces and democratic political parties emerged in Albania. This shift reflected the country's continuing orientation toward the West, and it accorded with the Albanian people's long-standing appreciation of Western technology and cultural achievements-even while retaining their own ethnic identity, cultural heritage, and individuality.
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 9:08 PM   0 comments
    World War I and its effects on Albania
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    Albania achieved a degree of statehood after World War I, in part because of the diplomatic intercession of the United States. The country suffered from a debilitating lack of economic and social development, however, and its first years of independence were fraught with political instability. Unable to survive in a predatory world without a foreign protector, Albania became the object of tensions between Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (the later Yugoslavia), which both sought to dominate the country.

    With Yugoslav military assistance, Ahmed Bey Zogu, the son of a clan chieftain, emerged victorious from an internal political power struggle in late 1924. Zogu, however, quickly turned his back on Belgrade and looked instead to Benito Mussolini's Italy for patronage. Under him, Albania joined the Italian coalition against Yugoslavia of Kingdom of Italy, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria in 1924-1927. After the United Kingdom's and France's political intervention in 1927 with the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the alliance crumbled. In 1928 Zogu coaxed the country's parliament into declaring Albania a kingdom and himself king. King Zogu remained a hidebound conservative, and Albania was the only Balkan state where the government did not introduce a comprehensive land reform between the two world wars. Mussolini's forces overthrew Zogu when they occupied Albania in 1939.
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 9:02 PM   0 comments
    The Origin of the Albanians
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    Most scholars consider that the Albanians are direct descendants of an Illyrian tribe that was named "Albanoi" that was located in present day Albania. Some scholars dispute this. See Origin of Albanians. Some scholars have claimed that the Albanians and the Illyrians are the descendants of the ancient Pelasgians, and thus their history goes back at least 4000 years before Christ.

    Those who support the Illyrian-Albanian continuity theory maintain that all the Illyrian tribes except the Albanians disappeared during the Early Middle Ages under the waves of migrating barbarians. A forbidding mountain homeland and resilient tribal society enabled the Albanians to survive into modern times with their identity and their Indo-European language intact.

    The name Albania is said by these scholars to be derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Arber, or Arbereshë, and later Albanoi, that lived near Durres.
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 9:00 PM   0 comments
    Friday, August 04, 2006
    Ethnik Albanians In Kosovo
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 3:34 PM   0 comments
    Sunday, July 23, 2006
    Independent Operator of System of Transmission and Energy Market inaugurated today
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    The establishment of the independent operator of transmission system and market in Kosova – KOSTT represents the first big step towards the reformation of the energy sector in Kosova, and the fulfilling of the obligations which come out of the Southeastern European Energy Treaty, said Minister of Energy and Mining Ethem Çeku.
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 11:57 AM   3 comments
    General Cecchi promises the Italian military presence in Kosova
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    Italian Army Chief of Staff, General Filiberto Cecchi, has promised today in Prishtina to the government officials the Italian military presence in Kosova, as part of the KFOR peacekeeping force and the contribution of the Italian people for the processes that Kosova is going through.
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 11:51 AM   1 comments
    Friday, June 02, 2006
    Gjon buzuku Meshari (1555)
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    Buzuku Gjon, 16th century. The first author known so far of theAlbanian literature, translator into Albanian of a clerical bookcalled "Missal" (1555), the oldest Albanian work which has beenpassed on up to date. The first 16 pages of the copy of the bookare missing. The book contains clerical material and the mainparts of Catholic liturgy. "Missal" was published in Latinalphabet of semi-gothic type.
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  • posted by Drobeshi @ 3:46 AM   9 comments
    Naim Frasheri
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    Frasheri Naim, 1846-1900. Great poet of Albanian NationalRenaissance, outstanding patriot, thinker and activist ofeducation and culture. He was born in Frasher of Permet. NaimFrasheri completed the secondary school Zosimea, in Greece. Hisfirst poem was "Albania" published in 1897 and which enthusedAlbanian patriots. He was one of the main publishers of theReview Drita in Istanbul, "Dituria" in a later period whichpublished many of his verses and proses for Albanian schools. In1886, he published the poem "Bageti dhe Bujqesi." The main worksof his are "Qerbelaja," "History of Scanderbeg," "AlbanianLanguage" , "Korca", etc.



    The Frasheri brothers, Sami, Abdyl, and Naim were all very noteworthy patriotic figures -though in different ways - of the Albanian Renaissance. They were born in the village of Frasher in the district of Permet. Naimi was above all an intellectual and a writer. He composed and published first in Persian -which he learned at a Bektashi tekke - then in Albanian. His subject range was wide but concentrated on patriotic themes.
    He wrote for children too, and translated the fables of La Fontaine. In outlook a pantheist and idealist, Naim supported the emanicipation of women and universal education. He was naturally as opposed to the Megali idea (that Greece should take over and run the Ottoman Empire) as well as to Panslavism. After Scanderbeg's death in 1468, all of Albania eventually fell to the Ottoman Turks where it was to remain for almost 500 years. It was not until the late 19th and early 20th centuries that a national movement for Albania's independence became a major force.
    Naim Frasheri was foremost in that movement. Born in 1846, he spent most of his life propagating the Albanian cause. His influence with the Turkish adminstration gave him unique opportunities to further Albanian nationalist activities such as the publication of the Albanian periodical Drita (Light) in 1864, and the opening of the first Albanian school in Korça (southern Albania) in 1866.
    Romantic in style, Naim used simple language in his poetry so that uneducated people could grasp its meaning. His works were well understood by all Albanians - though until the Communist rule of Enver Hoxha, the literacy level in Albania was the lowest in Europe. The Turks had banned everything published in the Albanian language so his works had to be smuggled into and around Albania. This precious cargo was securely packed into sacks of grain and rolls of dry goods which were being delivered to shops.
    One of the most cherished of Naim's poems is Bageti e Bujqesi ('Herds and Pastures', 1886). In this poem, Naim Frasheri exalted in poetry the beauty of Albania and the simple life of her people, expressing gratitude that she bestowed on him.
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